IBDP Biology Chapter 13 Notes

biotechnology and bioinformatics

STUDY NOTES FOR BIOLOGY CHAPTER 13 – BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINFORMATICS

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The material made available on Tychr’s website is available for all IBDP subjects and is specially curated after an extensive amount of effort to ensure that the notes are in consonance with the IB curriculum and are an amalgamation from various textbooks prescribed by the IBO.Students often face a challenge understanding concepts, especially concepts that are new and tricky. These IB Biology Notes will help the student cover the chapter of Cell Biology entirely while explaining each and every concept in a detailed and easy way.

This unit revolves around microorganisms in the industry, techniques of biotechnology and rDNA technology. First, we discuss pathway engineering, which is used to modify the genetic makeup of the organism to derive metabolites of interest, e.g. fermentation by microorganisms (fed-batch for penicillin and continuous for citric acid). Biogas production also utilises anaerobic bacteria (both eubacteria and archaebacteria) in steps of liquefaction, acidification, acetic acid formation and, at last, methanogenesis.

Gram stain is used to differentiate between gram +ve(thick layer of peptidoglycan) and gram -ve bacteria. Next, we move to GMO genetically modified organisms, in which transgenes are introduced, which give special characteristics to the organisms(e.g. GM crops resistant to unfavourable environments or weedicides). Some organisms are also used for bioremediation to eradicate pollutants or biofilms that are resistant to antimicrobial agents and are used in Sewage treatment plants and cleaning of water bodies.

Diseases often have genetic markers SNP (snips) or tandem repeats. PCR and ELISA are techniques that are diagnostic methods. PCR amplifies DNA, whereas ELISA is used to detect the presence of a particular macromolecule based on enzyme-linked reactions. Gene therapy is done using viral vectors to deliver the desired cloned gene into a nonvirulent virus, which then delivers it into human cells. Bioinformatics utilises a host of databases, cladograms (length of branches insignificant), phylograms(length of branch corresponds to timespan) and is quite helpful in genomics.