STUDY NOTES FOR BIOLOGY CHAPTER 2 – MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

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Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularized in the 1960s with the release of Letterset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.Expert teachers have specially curated these notes to simplify and enlighten concepts given in IB Biology HL. The notes are comprehensive and are sufficient to study the chapter in-depth, and one need not look for other resources beyond the notes provided on our website, which can be accessed for free. The notes for Molecular Biology IBDP HL are available on our official website and can be downloaded for free. You are one click away from obtaining all that you need to score well in IB Biology HL. The material made available on Tychr’s website is available for all IBDP subjects. It is specially curated after an extensive amount of effort to ensure that the notes are in consonance with the IB curriculum and are an amalgamation from various textbooks prescribed by the IBO. Students often face a challenge understanding concepts, especially concepts that are new and tricky. These IB Biology Notes will help the student cover the chapter on Molecular Biology entirely while explaining each concept in a detailed and easy way. 

Biology IBDP  is a part of group 4 Sciences of the IB Curriculum. The IBDP Biology course is the study of living organisms and their interaction with their surroundings. Students who opt for this course can better understand physiology, their environments, genetics etc. 

In Biology, the interaction of these approaches forms the basis of a holistic and integral approach to understanding biological processes and life as dynamic and complex phenomena; these enable students to understand the diversities and commonalities between living beings and environments.

The interaction of these approaches focuses on the CORE areas of Cell Biology, Molecular biology, Genetics, Ecology, Evolution and biodiversity, and human physiology.

This unit serves as an exhaustive entry point to various other units. We start with understanding metabolism, which is the sum total of all chemical reactions, including catabolism (building up) and anabolism (breaking down), and how carbon is the keystone element. We also talk about water, its polar structure, and how hydrogen bonding gives rise to emergent properties of cohesion, adhesion, universal solvent and high heat of vaporisation.

Then we examine monosaccharides and condensation reactions which yield polysaccharides used for storage and protection. We then move onto lipids and how unsaturated fatty acids are more beneficial than saturated. We also talk about amino acids and levels of protein structure. This discussion is followed by enzymes, where we dive into the factors that affect enzyme activity(pH, Temperature, substrate concentration). We also examine the uses of enzymes in industries. Then we move on to the structure of DNA and RNA.

These nucleic acids are made up of nucleotide monomers: pentose sugar, nitrogenous bases and a phosphate group. Followed by DNA replication which utilises a host of enzymes to duplicate the DNA before cell division. Side by side, we move on to the expression of these nucleic acids by transcription [ DNA to mRNA] and translation [mRNA to proteins] with a brief mention of the types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA). These processes of gene expression are followed by physiological processes of photosynthesis( conversion of light energy to chemical energy) And respiration (glycolysis +link reaction +krebs cycle) along with a description of the structure of chloroplast and mitochondria.

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