STUDY NOTES FOR BIOLOGY CHAPTER 4 – ECOLOGY

Expert teachers have specially curated these notes to simplify and enlighten concepts given in IB Biology HL. The notes are comprehensive and are sufficient to study the chapter in-depth, and one need not look for other resources beyond the notes provided on our website, which can be accessed for free. The notes for ecology IBDP HL are available on our official website and can be downloaded for free. You are one click away from obtaining all that you need to score well in IB Biology HL. The material made available on Tychr’s website is available for all IBDP subjects. It is specially curated after an extensive amount of effort to ensure that the notes are in consonance with the IB curriculum and are an amalgamation from various textbooks prescribed by the IBO. Students often face a challenge understanding concepts, especially concepts that are new and tricky. These IB Biology Notes will help the student cover the chapter on ecology entirely while explaining each concept in a detailed and easy way. 

Biology IBDP  is a part of group 4 Sciences of the IB Curriculum. The IBDP Biology course is the study of living organisms and their interaction with their surroundings. Students who opt for this course can better understand physiology, their environments, genetics etc. 

In Biology, the interaction of these approaches forms the basis of a holistic and integral approach to understanding biological processes and life as dynamic and complex phenomena; these enable students to understand the diversities and commonalities between living beings and environments.

The interaction of these approaches focuses on the CORE areas of Cell Biology, Molecular biology, Genetics, Ecology, Evolution and biodiversity, and human physiology.

This unit links up the topics of the ecosystem, energy-flow, carbon cycling and climate change. Habitat is the natural living environment of an organism, and species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring (hybrids are infertile). We first talk about the levels of ecological organisation (individual > population > community > ecosystem > biome > biosphere), followed by decomposers ( organisms that breakdown organic waste into inorganic constituents). Then we examine the energy flow through the food chain and food web. Every level in a food chain is called a trophic level; producers, i.e. green plants, always occupy the first trophic level.

There are generally 3 to 4 trophic levels, but they may go up to 5 sometimes. Interlinked food chains form a food web. Only 10% of the energy and biomass gets transferred from one trophic level to another, and the rest 90% is lost as heat which contributes to global warming. This pattern of energy distribution is often referred to as the pyramid of energy. Next, we dive into the carbon cycle, Where producers take up the CO₂ and convert it into glucose. Methanogens produce methane as a waste. CO₂ is released when fossil fuels are burnt in air. At the end we focus on global warming due to increased greenhouse effect wherein the atmosphere retains its heat even when no sunlight is hitting the surface. This trapping of heat is due to greenhouse gases like water vapor, CO₂, methane and nitrous oxide NO₂.

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