IBDP Environmental Systems & Societies Solutions Chapter 8 Notes

Human Systems and Resource Use


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The chapter on human systems and resource use explains the demographic tools that are used to evaluate population. Terms like birth rate, mortality, doubling time and other related terms are explained along with their formulae for calculation. The Demographic Transition Model (DTM) which shows the change in population is also examined. We discuss policies like One Child Policy of China and the anti-natalist an pronatalist policy of Singapore to control population growth. There have been various international policies to address the effects of growth in population. Natural capital which is the number of natural resources that are present consists of both renewable as well as non-renewable resources which need to be used judiciously.

Next, we understand waste production and methods to dispose waste produced in homes like landfills, composting and incineration. Certain types of waste which is non-biodegradable like plastics and e-waste needs to be handled by other methods so that it does not end up harming the animals and becoming a threat to the ecosystem. Carrying capacity which is the maximum number of species that can be supported by the environment and the concept of ecological footprint is examined in less economically developed countries and more economically developed countries.