IBDP Geography Section C Chapter 2 Notes

the characteristics of extreme enviroment


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Students often face a challenge understanding concepts, especially concepts that are new and These IB Geography Notes will help the student cover the chapter of Drainage Basin Hydrology and Geomorphology entirely while explaining each and every concept in a detailed and easy way.

This chapter helps to uncover the characteristics of extreme environments. Around the world, we see a variety of different landscapes and climates ranging from extremely cold to extremely hot places. People in those regions adapt themselves externally to survive in such harsh climatic conditions and build a livelihood through their surroundings. The global distribution of extreme environments can be broadly categories into cold and high-altitude environments and desert and semi-arid environments. Cold extreme climatic conditions are usually found along constructive plate margins, where fold mountains form, or polar regions.

Dry and extremely hot climatic conditions are usually found in the tropics that receive direct sunlight in summer and winters. Surviving in such extreme conditions requires adaption ability and resilience in the people who inhabit such regions. People living in such conditions often develop their means to cope with periglacial environments and permafrost. Coping in arid environments also means difficulty in accessibility to rainfall, relief and causes immense human discomfort. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the advance and retreat of glaciers and natural desertification or the process of land turning desert as the quality of soil declines over time.