AP Computer Science A Comprehensive Syllabus

AP Computer Science A Comprehensive Syllabus

Unit 1: Primitive Type

Subtopic Number Subtopic Name Outline
1.1 Why Programming?

Why Java?

  • Programming is the process of creating computer software using a programming language. It involves writing code that a computer can understand and execute. Programming is used in a wide range of applications, from creating games and mobile apps to building complex business software. Programming allows individuals to automate repetitive tasks, solve complex problems, and create new software products. It also offers a lucrative career path, as demand for skilled programmers continues to grow.
  • Java is a popular programming language that is widely used for developing web, desktop, and mobile applications. It is known for its platform independence, which means that Java programs can run on any platform that supports Java, such as Windows, Mac, or Linux. Java is also easy to learn and has a large community of developers who share their knowledge and contribute to open-source projects.
1.2 Variables and Data Types Variables: Variables are used in programming to store data values. A variable has a name that identifies it, and it can be assigned a value of a certain data type.

Data Types: A data type is a classification of data that determines the type of values that can be stored in a variable. Common data types include:

  • int: A data type that represents whole numbers.
  • double: A data type that represents decimal numbers.
  • boolean: A data type that represents true or false values.
  • char: A data type that represents a single character.
  • String: A data type that represents a sequence of characters.
1.3 Expression and Assignment Statements
  • Expression: A combination of one or more values, operators, and/or method invocations that the computer evaluates to produce another value. Example: 3 + 4. “Hello ” + “world”
  • Data types: A set of values and the operations that can be performed on those values.
  • Examples of data types:
  • int: Represents whole numbers.
  • double: Represents floating-point numbers with decimal places.
  • boolean: Represents true or false values.
  • String: Represents a sequence of characters.
  • Assignment statement: A statement that assigns a value to a variable. Example: int x = 5;, double y = 3.14;
  • Type casting: The process of converting a value from one data type to another. Example: int x = (int) 3.14; (x is 3), double y = (double) 5; (y is 5.0)
1.4 Compound Assignment Operators
  1. Arithmetic Compound Assignment Operators: These operators allow you to perform arithmetic operations (such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) on a variable and assign the result back to the same variable in a single step. For example, the statement x += 5 is equivalent to x = x + 5.
  2. Bitwise Compound Assignment Operators: These operators allow you to perform bitwise operations (such as AND, OR, XOR, and shift) on a variable and assign the result back to the same variable in a single step. For example, the statement x &= 0xF is equivalent to x = x & 0xF.
  3. Benefits of Compound Assignment Operators: These operators provide a more concise and readable way of expressing operations that involve the same variable on both sides of an assignment statement. They can also help to improve performance by reducing the number of instructions needed to perform the same operation.
  4. Precedence and Associativity: Compound Assignment Operators have lower precedence than most arithmetic and bitwise operators, but higher than the assignment operator. They also have right-to-left associativity, meaning that the operation is performed from right to left, and the result is assigned to the variable on the left. For example, the statement x += y -= z is equivalent to y = y – z, followed by x = x + y.
  5. Limitations of Compound Assignment Operators: These operators can only be used with variables that have a compatible data type. For example, the bitwise AND operator (&=) can only be used with integer or boolean types. They also cannot be used with certain types of expressions, such as method calls or complex assignments.
1.5 Casting and Ranges of Variables Casting: In programming, casting refers to the process of converting a value of one data type to another. This is often necessary when a value of one type needs to be used in an expression or operation that requires a different type.

Implicit Casting: Also known as “widening” or “promotion”, this type of casting occurs automatically when a value of a smaller or less precise data type is assigned to a variable of a larger or more precise type. For example, assigning an integer to a floating-point variable will result in implicit casting.

Explicit Casting: Also known as “narrowing” or “demotion”, this type of casting requires the programmer to explicitly convert a value of a larger or more precise data type to a smaller or less precise type. For example, converting a floating-point value to an integer using the cast operator (int) in Java.

Ranges of Variables: Every data type has a range of values that it can hold. The range of a variable is determined by the number of bits allocated to it in memory. The range of values that can be stored in a variable depends on the data type of the variable.

Unit 2: Using Objects

Subtopic Number Subtopic Name Outline
2.1 Objects: Instances of Classes
  • Class: A class is a blueprint or template that defines a set of properties and behaviours for a type of object. It specifies the attributes and methods that the object will have.
  • Object: An object is an instance of a class. It represents a unique entity that has a set of properties and behaviours defined by the class.
  • Instance variable: An instance variable is a variable that is defined within a class and is unique to each instance of the class. It represents a property or attribute of the object.
2.2 Creating and Storing Objects (Instantiation)
  • Instantiation: Instantiation is the process of creating an object from a class by calling the class constructor.
  • Reference Variable: A reference variable is a variable that stores the memory address of an object rather than the object itself.
  • Heap: The heap is a region of memory used to allocate objects at runtime.
2.3 Calling a Void Method
  • In Java, a method is a block of code that performs a specific task. A void method is a method that does not return any value. Instead, it performs some actions or operations.
  • When calling a void method, you simply use the name of the method followed by a pair of parentheses. If the method requires any arguments, they are placed inside the parentheses.
2.4 Calling a Void Method with Parameters 
  • Method signature: The method signature includes the method name and the number and types of its parameters.
  • Argument: An argument is a value that is passed to a method when it is called.
  • Parameter: A parameter is a variable that is used to receive an argument value in a method.
  • Passing by value: Java passes arguments to a method by value, which means that a copy of the argument’s value is passed to the method.
2.5 Calling a Non-void Method Method Signature: A method signature is a unique identifier for a method that consists of the method name and the types of its parameters. It does not include the return type or the access modifier.

Return Type: The return type of a method specifies the tye pof value that the method returns.

Method Call: A method call is the process of executing a method in Java. It involves specifying the method name and passing any required parameters.

2.6 String Objects: Concatenation, Literals, and More
  • String Objects: Concatenation, Literals, and More
  • String Literals: A string literal is a sequence of characters enclosed in double quotes, such as “hello, world”. In Java, string literals are instances of the String class.
  • Concatenation: Concatenation is the process of joining two or more strings together. In Java, you can concatenate strings using the + operator or the concat() method.
2.7 String Methods
  1. length() method: Returns the length of a string as an integer value.
  2. charAt(int index) method: Returns the character located at the specified index position within the string.
  3. indexOf(char c) method: Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified character within the string, or -1 if the character is not found.
  4. substring(int beginIndex, int endIndex) method: Returns a new string that is a substring of the original string, starting at the specified beginIndex and ending at the specified endIndex.
  5. toUpperCase() method: Returns a new string with all the characters converted to uppercase.
  6. toLowerCase() method: Returns a new string with all the characters converted to lowercase.
  7. trim() method: Returns a new string with any leading or trailing whitespace removed.
  8. replace(char oldChar, char newChar) method: Returns a new string where all occurrences of the oldChar are replaced with the newChar.
2.8 Wrapper Classes: Integer and Double
  • Wrapper Classes: Wrapper classes in Java are classes that wrap primitive data types into objects, allowing them to be used in situations where objects are required. Two commonly used wrapper classes are Integer and Double.
  • Autoboxing: Autoboxing is the automatic conversion that the Java compiler makes between primitive types and their corresponding object wrapper classes. For example, when an int is assigned to an Integer variable, the int is automatically wrapped in an Integer object.
  • Unboxing: Unboxing is the reverse process of autoboxing. It is the automatic conversion of an object of a wrapper class back to its corresponding primitive type. For example, when an Integer object is assigned to an int variable, the Integer is automatically unboxed to an int.
2.9 Using the Math Class The Math class is a built-in Java class that provides methods for performing mathematical operations. The methods in the Math class are static, which means they can be called directly from the class without needing to create an instance of the class.

Unit 3: Boolean Expressions and If Statements

Subtopic Number Subtopic Name Outline
3.1 Boolean Expressions A boolean expression is a statement that can evaluate to either true or false. It consists of boolean operators (such as AND, OR, and NOT) and boolean values (true or false).

Examples of boolean expressions:

  • x == y (checks if x is equal to y)
  • x > y || z < w (checks if either x is greater than y OR z is less than w)
  • !(x < y) (checks if x is not less than y)
3.2 if Statements and Control Flow switch statement: A switch statement is a programming structure used to execute one of several possible statements, based on the value of an expression.
3.3 if-else Statements if statement: An if statement is a programming structure used to execute a set of statements conditionally, based on the value of a boolean expression.

else statement: An else statement is used in conjunction with an if statement to provide an alternative set of statements to execute if the boolean expression is false.

3.4 else if Statements  else if statement: An else if statement is used in conjunction with an if statement to provide an alternative set of statements to execute if the first boolean expression is false, and a second boolean expression is true.
3.5 Compound Boolean Expressions
  • Precedence: The order in which operators are evaluated in a compound expression. In Java, the NOT operator has the highest precedence, followed by AND, and then OR. Parentheses can be used to change the order of evaluation.
  • Short-Circuit Evaluation: A feature of Java (and other languages) in which the evaluation of a compound Boolean expression stops as soon as the final value can be determined. For example, if the first operand of an OR expression is true, the second operand will not be evaluated, since the overall result will be true regardless of its value.
3.6 Equivalent Boolean Expressions
  • Equivalent Boolean expressions refer to different Boolean expressions that have the same truth value. That is, they evaluate to either true or false under the same conditions. In computer science, equivalent Boolean expressions can be useful for simplifying code or improving its readability.
  • De Morgan’s Laws: Two equivalent Boolean expressions can be created using De Morgan’s Laws. These laws state that the negation of a conjunction (AND) is the same as the disjunction (OR) of the negations of the individual expressions, and the negation of a disjunction (OR) is the same as the conjunction (AND) of the negations of the individual expressions.
  • Distributive property: The distributive property of Boolean algebra states that a Boolean expression can be rewritten in different ways using AND and OR operators. For example, (A OR B) AND C is equivalent to (A AND C) OR (B AND C).
  • Commutative property: The commutative property states that the order of operands does not affect the result of a Boolean expression. For example, A AND B is equivalent to B AND A, and A OR B is equivalent to B OR A.
3.7 Comparing Objects Comparing Objects is a fundamental concept in programming that involves comparing two objects to determine whether they are equal or not. In Java, objects are compared using the equals() method or the == operator. The equals() method is used to compare the values of the objects, while the == operator is used to compare the references of the objects.

When comparing objects, it is important to consider the type of object being compared. For primitive types like int or char, the values can be compared directly using the == operator. For non-primitive types like String or Object, the equals() method should be used to compare the values of the objects.

Unit 4: Iteration

Subtopic Number Subtopic Name Outline
4.1 While Loops While Loop: A while loop is a control flow statement that allows a program to repeatedly execute a block of code as long as a certain condition is true. In a while loop, it is important to ensure that the condition will eventually become false to prevent an infinite loop, which can cause the program to crash or freeze.
4.2 For Loops A for loop is a programming construct that allows you to repeat a block of code for a specified number of times. The basic structure of a for loop includes an initialization statement, a condition, and an update statement. The loop body will execute repeatedly as long as the condition is true.
4.3 Developing Algorithms Using Strings Looping through Strings: To process each character in a string, a loop can be used to iterate through the string one character at a time. This can be achieved using a for loop or a while loop, depending on the specific needs of the program.

Searching and Replacing: Strings can be searched for specific characters or substrings using various algorithms such as linear search or binary search. Additionally, specific substrings or characters can be replaced with new ones using the replace() method or other similar functions.

Regular Expressions: Regular expressions are a powerful tool for pattern matching and searching within strings. They allow programmers to define complex patterns of characters that can be matched against a string to identify specific substrings or patterns of interest.

4.4 Nested Iteration  Nested iteration is the process of using one or more loops inside of another loop. It is commonly used in computer science to iterate over multidimensional data structures such as matrices and arrays.

Nested loops can be used for a variety of tasks, such as searching through a database, processing large sets of data, or generating complex patterns.

4.5 Informal Code Analysis  Informal Code Analysis: A process used to identify and fix issues in a codebase that involves reviewing the code without running it. This can include identifying syntax errors, logical errors, and other issues that may cause the code to behave unexpectedly or not as intended. The goal of informal code analysis is to improve code quality and reduce the likelihood of bugs and other issues in the code. Techniques used in informal code analysis may include code walkthroughs, code reviews, and other methods of analyzing code.

Unit 5: Writing Classes

Subtopic Number Subtopic Name Outline
5.1 Anatomy of a Class Class: A class is a blueprint or a template for creating objects in object-oriented programming. It defines the properties and behaviors of objects, including their attributes (instance variables) and methods (functions).
5.2 Constructors A constructor is a special method that is called when an object is created. It is used to initialize the object’s state and allocate memory for the object. In Java, the constructor has the same name as the class and does not have a return type.

Types of Constructors:

  1. Default Constructor: A constructor that takes no arguments is called a default constructor. If no constructors are defined in a class, Java will provide a default constructor that takes no arguments.
  2. Parameterized Constructor: A constructor that takes one or more arguments is called a parameterized constructor. It is used to set the initial state of an object based on the arguments passed to it.
  3. Copy Constructor: A constructor that takes an object of the same class as an argument and creates a new object with the same state is called a copy constructor. It is used to create a new object that is a copy of an existing object.
5.3 Documentation with Comments Documentation with Comments:

Documentation in programming refers to adding text-based explanations of what code does and how it works, in order to help other developers understand and work with the code. Comments are a type of documentation that programmers add to their code to explain what the code does, how it does it, and why it is written that way.

There are two main types of comments:

  1. Single-line comments: These comments start with two forward slashes (//) and are used for brief comments that fit on a single line.
  2. Multi-line comments: These comments start with /* and end with */ and are used for longer comments that span multiple lines.
5.4 Accessor Methods Accessor methods, also known as getters, are methods in object-oriented programming that provide access to the private fields of a class from outside the class. They are used to retrieve the value of a private field and return it to the calling code.
5.5 Mutator Methods  Mutator methods, also known as setter methods, are a type of method in object-oriented programming that modify the state of an object by changing the values of its instance variables. These methods typically have void return type and take one or more arguments corresponding to the instance variables to be modified.
5.6 Writing Methods  Writing Methods:

A method is a block of code that performs a specific task and can be called upon by other parts of the program. Methods are used to organize code, make it more readable and easier to maintain.

5.7 Static Variables and Methods 
  • Static Variables: A static variable is a variable that is associated with the class, rather than with any object of that class. A static variable is shared by all objects of the class, and there is only one copy of the variable in memory. It is declared using the static keyword.
  • Static Methods: A static method is a method that is associated with the class, rather than with any object of that class. A static method can be called without creating an instance of the class, and it can access static variables and methods of the class. It is declared using the static keyword.
5.8 Scope and Access
  • Scope refers to the visibility and accessibility of variables and methods in a program. In Java, there are different levels of scope such as class, instance, local, and block. The scope of a variable or method is determined by where it is declared and can be accessed from within that scope.
  • Access refers to the ability to use or modify a variable or method from another class or instance. In Java, there are four access modifiers: public, private, protected, and default. These modifiers control the level of accessibility of a variable or method to other classes and instances.
  • Public: Variables and methods with this modifier are accessible from any other class or instance.
  • Private: Variables and methods with this modifier are only accessible within the same class.
  • Protected: Variables and methods with this modifier are accessible within the same package and subclasses of the class in other packages.
  • Default: Variables and methods with no access modifier (i.e., no modifier keyword is used) are only accessible within the same package.
5.9 this Keyword this keyword: In Java, “this” is a keyword that refers to the current object instance. It can be used to reference instance variables, instance methods, or to call constructors of the same class.
5.10 Ethical and Social Implications of Computing Systems
  1. Privacy: With the increasing amount of data being collected by computing systems, there is a concern for individual privacy. This includes personal information such as financial and health data, location data, and internet activity.
  2. Bias and Discrimination: Computing systems may have biases based on the data they are trained on, which can lead to discrimination against certain groups. For example, facial recognition technology has been shown to have higher error rates for people with darker skin tones.
  3. Cybersecurity: Computing systems are vulnerable to cyber attacks, which can result in the compromise of personal information and national security.
  4. Environmental Impact: Computing systems require a significant amount of energy to run, leading to environmental concerns such as carbon emissions and e-waste.
  5. Social Media and Online Communities: The rise of social media and online communities has led to issues such as cyberbullying, online harassment, and the spread of false information.
  6. Intellectual Property: Computing systems have made it easier to copy and distribute intellectual property, leading to issues such as copyright infringement and plagiarism.
  7. Accessibility: Computing systems have the potential to improve accessibility for people with disabilities, but there are also concerns regarding the exclusion of certain groups from accessing technology.

Unit 6: Array

Subtopic Number Subtopic Name Outline
6.1 Array Creation and Access
  • Array Creation: An array is a data structure that stores a collection of elements of the same type. Array creation involves specifying the type of the elements and the number of elements in the array.
  • Array Access: Array elements can be accessed using their index, which is a non-negative integer that specifies the position of the element in the array. Array indices start at 0, so the first element of an array has an index of 0, the second element has an index of 1, and so on.
6.2 Traversing Arrays Array Traversal: It is the process of accessing each element in an array one by one in order to perform some operation on it.

Some ways to traverse an array are:

  • For loop
  • While loop
  • Do-while loop
  • Nested loops
6.3 Enhanced for Loop for Arrays Enhanced for loop for arrays is a construct in programming that allows for the efficient traversal of an array by iterating through all of its elements. It is also known as a “for-each” loop because it iterates over each element of an array, in order, without requiring the use of an explicit index.
6.4 Developing Algorithms Using Arrays
  • Searching an Array: The process of finding a specific value in an array by iterating through each element until the value is found.
  • Sorting an Array: The process of arranging the elements of an array in a particular order, such as ascending or descending.
  • Efficiency of Algorithms: The process of analyzing the time and space complexity of an algorithm to determine its efficiency and performance.

Unit 7: ArrayList

Subtopic Number Subtopic Name Outline
7.1 Introduction to ArrayList ArrayList: An ArrayList is a class in Java that implements the List interface and provides dynamic arrays that can grow or shrink in size as needed. It allows elements to be added or removed from the list, and provides various methods for accessing and manipulating the elements in the list.

Declaring an ArrayList: To declare an ArrayList, you must first import the java.util.ArrayList package and then create an instance of the ArrayList class

7.2 ArrayList Methods Adding elements: You can add elements to an ArrayList using the add() method. For example, list.add(“apple”) would add the string “apple” to the end of the list.

Getting elements: You can retrieve elements from an ArrayList using the get() method. For example, list.get(0) would return the first element in the list.

Removing elements: You can remove elements from an ArrayList using the remove() method. For example, list.remove(0) would remove the first element in the list.

Size of the ArrayList: You can get the number of elements in an ArrayList using the size() method. For example, list.size() would return the number of elements in the list.

Sorting the ArrayList: You can use the sort() method to sort the elements of an ArrayList in ascending order.

7.3 Traversing ArrayLists
  1. For-each Loop: A for-each loop can be used to traverse an ArrayList. It is a simplified version of the for loop and allows for easy iteration through all the elements of an ArrayList.
  2. For Loop: A for loop can also be used to traverse an ArrayList. It uses the index of the ArrayList to iterate through all the elements.
  3. Iterator: An iterator can be used to traverse an ArrayList. It provides a way to access each element of the ArrayList one by one and perform certain operations on them.
  4. ListIterator: A ListIterator is a type of iterator that can be used to traverse an ArrayList in both directions, forward and backward. It provides additional methods like adding, removing, and replacing elements while traversing the list.
  5. Stream API: The Stream API introduced in Java 8 provides a more concise and efficient way to traverse an ArrayList. It allows for functional-style operations like filtering, mapping, and reducing on the elements of the ArrayList.
  6. Enumeration: Enumeration is an older way of traversing an ArrayList. It provides a way to access each element of the ArrayList one by one, but it lacks the additional features provided by iterators and the Stream API.
7.4 Developing Algorithms Using ArrayLists
  1. Accessing elements: You can access elements in an ArrayList using their index. The first element has an index of 0 and the last element has an index of size()-1.
  2. Iterating over elements: You can use a for-each loop to iterate over all the elements in an ArrayList. Alternatively, you can use a traditional for loop with an index to access individual elements.
  3. Adding and removing elements: You can use the add() method to add elements to an ArrayList, and the remove() method to remove elements from it. Be aware that when an element is removed, all subsequent elements shift down by one index.
  4. Searching for elements: You can use the indexOf() method to search for an element in an ArrayList. It returns the index of the first occurrence of the element, or -1 if the element is not found.
  5. Sorting elements: You can use the sort() method to sort the elements in an ArrayList. By default, it sorts the elements in ascending order. You can also provide a custom Comparator object to sort the elements in a different order.
7.5 Searching Linear Search: A method of searching for an element in a list or array by sequentially checking each element until a match is found or the end of the list is reached. It has a time complexity of O(n) where n is the number of elements in the list.

Binary Search: A method of searching for an element in a sorted list or array by repeatedly dividing the search interval in half until the target element is found or the interval is empty. It has a time complexity of O(log n) where n is the number of elements in the list.

Sequential vs. Binary Search: While sequential search is simple to implement, binary search is more efficient for large lists since it takes less time to search for an element. However, binary search can only be used for sorted lists.

7.6 Sorting Sorting: Sorting is the process of arranging elements in a specific order. In computer science, sorting is an essential algorithmic problem, and there are many different algorithms for sorting.

  • Bubble Sort
  • Selection Sort
  • Insertion Sort
  • Merge Sort
  • Quick Sort
  • Heap Sort
7.7 Ethical Issues Around Data Collection Some ethical issues around data collection are:

  1. Privacy
  2. Discrimination
  3. Misuse of Data
  4. Security
  5. Transparency
  6. Informed Consent
  7. Accuracy
  8. Ownership

Unit 8: 2D Arrays

Subtopic Number Subtopic Name Outline
8.1 2D Arrays A 2D array is a data structure that stores information in a two-dimensional grid format. It is similar to a regular array, but instead of just one index, it has two indices: one for the row and one for the column.
8.2 Traversing 2D Arrays
  1. Nested loops: We can use nested for loops to traverse a 2D array. The outer loop iterates through the rows of the array, and the inner loop iterates through the columns of each row. This allows us to visit each element of the array in turn.
  2. Enhanced for loop: In Java, we can also use an enhanced for loop to traverse a 2D array. This involves iterating through each row of the array and then iterating through each element of the row. This can be a simpler way to traverse the array, especially if we don’t need to know the indices of each element.

Unit 9: Inheritance

Subtopic Number Subtopic Name Outline
9.1 Creating Subclasses and Superclasses Superclass: A class that is more general than other classes in a hierarchy. It provides common attributes and behaviors that can be inherited by its subclasses.

Subclass: A class that is more specific than other classes in a hierarchy. It inherits attributes and behaviors from its superclass, but it can also add its own unique attributes and behaviors.

Inheritance: The mechanism by which a subclass can inherit attributes and behaviors from its superclass.

9.2 Writing Constructors for Subclasses Inheritance allows subclasses to inherit the fields and methods of their superclass. However, a subclass may have additional fields or require specific initialization. Constructors allow us to initialize the fields of an object when it is created.

To create a constructor for a subclass, we use the same syntax as for a superclass constructor. The constructor should first call the constructor of its superclass using the “super” keyword and then initialize any additional fields specific to the subclass.

9.3 Overriding Methods In object-oriented programming, methods are functions defined within a class that can be called on objects of that class. When a subclass inherits a method from its superclass, it can choose to override that method by providing its own implementation.

The overriding method must have the same method signature (name, return type, and parameter types) as the method being overridden. By providing a new implementation of the method, the subclass can customize the behavior of the method for its own specific needs.

Some key concepts related to overriding methods include:

  • Inheritance: The ability of a subclass to inherit properties and methods from its superclass.
  • Method signature: The unique identifier of a method, which includes the method name, return type, and parameter types.
  • Polymorphism: The ability of an object to take on many forms. In the case of overriding methods, this means that a subclass object can be treated as an object of its superclass, even though it has its own implementation of the method.
9.4 “Super” Keyword The super keyword is used in Java to refer to the superclass of a subclass. It can be used to call a constructor of the superclass, access a member of the superclass, or invoke a method of the superclass.

Some common uses of the super keyword include:

  1. Calling the constructor of the superclass: When a subclass is created, it must call the constructor of its superclass to initialize the inherited fields. This can be done using the super keyword with the appropriate arguments.
  2. Accessing a member of the superclass: If a subclass has a field or method with the same name as a field or method in its superclass, the super keyword can be used to access the superclass version of the field or method.
  3. Invoking a method of the superclass: If a subclass overrides a method of its superclass, but still wants to call the superclass version of the method, the super keyword can be used to invoke the superclass version of the method.
9.5 Creating References Using Inheritance Hierarchies References created using inheritance via:

  • Superclass
  • Subclass
  • Polymorphism
  • Dynamic Binding
  • Method Overriding
  • Interfaces
9.6 Polymorphism Polymorphism is the ability of an object to take on many forms. In object-oriented programming, it is achieved through inheritance and method overriding. A superclass can define a method and a subclass can override that method to provide its own implementation. When a program calls the method on an object of the subclass, the overridden method in the subclass is executed.

There are two types of polymorphism: 

Compile-time polymorphism, also known as method overloading, occurs when there are multiple methods with the same name in a class, but with different parameters.

Runtime polymorphism, also known as method overriding, occurs when a subclass provides its own implementation of a method that is already defined in the superclass.

9.7 Object Superclass The Object superclass is a built-in class in Java that is the parent class of all other classes. Every class in Java is either a direct or indirect subclass of Object. The Object class provides several useful methods that can be used by all objects, such as the toString() method, which returns a string representation of the object, and the equals() method, which compares two objects for equality. The Object class also provides methods for synchronization and cloning..

Unit 10: Recursion

Subtopic Number Subtopic Name Outline
10.1 Recursion Recursion: Recursion is a programming technique that involves a function calling itself. It is a powerful and elegant technique that can simplify complex problems by breaking them down into smaller, simpler problems.

Base Case: In recursion, a base case is a condition that stops the recursion from continuing indefinitely. The base case is typically the simplest case of the problem that can be solved directly, without recursion.

Recursive Case: In recursion, a recursive case is a condition that requires the function to call itself to solve a subproblem. The recursive case is typically more complex than the base case, and the recursion continues until it reaches the base case.

Stack Overflow: A stack overflow occurs when a program runs out of memory due to too many recursive function calls. This can happen if the base case is not defined properly or if the recursion depth is too large.

Tail Recursion: Tail recursion is a special case of recursion where the recursive call is the last operation performed in the function. Tail recursion can be optimized by some compilers to reduce the memory usage and improve the performance.

Inductive Reasoning: Inductive reasoning is the process of using specific examples or cases to derive a general rule or principle. Recursion can be used in inductive reasoning to solve problems that involve repeating patterns or structures.

Examples of Recursion: Some examples of recursion include computing the factorial of a number, computing the Fibonacci sequence, and traversing a tree data structure.

10.2 Recursive Searching and Sorting Recursive Searching:

Recursive searching is a technique used to search for an element in a data structure by dividing the data structure into smaller pieces and searching each piece individually. This is done by breaking down the data structure into smaller substructures, and then recursively searching each of these substructures until the element is found. The most common example of recursive searching is the binary search algorithm.

Sorting:

Sorting is the process of arranging elements in a specific order. In computer science, sorting is typically done to make it easier to search for specific elements, or to analyze data in a specific way. There are many different algorithms for sorting, including bubble sort, insertion sort, quicksort, and mergesort.

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