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AP Human Geography Comprehensive Syllabus

AP Human Geography Comprehensive Syllabus

Unit 1: Thinking Geographically

Subtopic Subtopic Number AP Points to understand
Introduction to Maps 1.1 Map: A map is a visual representation of an area that can be used to illustrate and communicate information about the geography, topography, or other features of that area.

Some types of maps include: Political, Physical, Topographic, Road, Weather, etc

Reference Maps: Maps that provide general information about an area. They typically show the location of important features such as roads.

Thematic Maps: Maps that focus on a particular theme or topic, such as population density, land use, or climate patterns. They use different visual elements such as colors, symbols, or shading to represent the data related to the theme.

Spatial Patterns: They refer to the way in which different features or phenomena are distributed across space.

Examples of spatial patterns:

  • Clusters of population
  • The spread of disease
  • The distribution of natural resources

Different kinds of spatial patterns and relationships portrayed in maps

Absolute distance on maps: Refers to the physical distance between two points on a map measured in a standard unit of length, such as kilometers or miles. 

Relative distance on maps: Refers to the perceived distance between two points on a map based on their location and the ease of travel between them.

Geographic Data 1.2 Methods of Geographic Data collection:

  • Remote Sensing
  • GPS and GNSS
  • Field Surveying
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Data Mining
  • LiDAR
  • Aerial Photography and satellite imagery

Geospatial Technology: It refers to the collection, analysis, and visualization of geographic data using digital tools and technologies. 

The Power of geographic Data 1.3 Effects of geographical effects of decisions made using geographical information

Geospatial data: It refers to the information that identifies the geographic location and characteristics of natural and constructed features and boundaries on the Earth’s surface.

  • Census Data: Demographic data collected through a census or survey of a population.
  • Satellite Imagery: Type of geospatial data that is collected by satellites orbiting the Earth.

Uses of geospatial and geographical data for personal, business and organization scales.

Spatial Concepts 1.4 Geographic concepts that illustrate spatial relationships:

  • Absolute and Relative Location
  • Distance Decay
  • Direction
  • Scale
  • Time- Space Compression
  • Place and Pattern
  • Region
  • Movement
  • Human-Environment Interaction
Human-Environmental Interaction 1.5 Concepts of nature and society

Sustainability: It is the ability to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Natural resources: Materials and substances that occur naturally in the environment and are used by living organisms for survival. Examples include:

  • Water
  • Timber
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Metals and minerals
  • Air

Theories regarding the interaction between the natural environment with human societies and the evolution from environmental determinism to possibilism

Scales of Analysis 1.6 Scales of Analysis: They also refer to the different levels of geographical observation and analysis. It includes:

  • Global scale
  • National scale
  • Regional scale
  • Local scale

Purpose of scales of analysis: Geographers use it to study the Earth’s surface and the relationships between different phenomena. Geographers can also gain a more comprehensive understanding of the complexities of the Earth’s surface and the processes that shape it. 

Regional Analysis 1.7 Geographers definition of regions: Earth’s surface that is defined by certain characteristics such as physical features, cultural practices, or economic systems. They can be in different scales and can overlap with one another.

Types of Regions:

  • Formal
  • Function
  • Vernacular 

Regional boundaries: They can be natural or artificial. Natural boundaries are defined by physical features (mountains, rivers or oceans). Artificial boundaries are defined by human-made structures like walls, political borders or fences.

Unit 2: Population and Migration Patterns and Processes

Subtopic Subtopic Number AP Points to understand
Population Distribution 2.1 Factors that influence distribution of human population:

  • Physical factors (climate, water bodies, etc)
  • Human factors (culture, economics, history, etc)

Factors that illustrate patterns of population distribution:

  • Physical geography
  • Economic factors
  • Cultural factors
  • Political factors
  • Historical factors
  • Infrastructure

Methods to calculate population density:

  • Arithmetic
  • Physiological
  • Agricultural

Differences between the methods used to calculate the population density

Consequences of Population Distribution 2.2 Population distribution: Pattern of where people live within a geographic area.

Population density: Measure of the number of people living in a given area, typically measured in people per square kilometer or square mile. 

How they affect political, economic and social processes. How they also affect the environment and natural resources.

Population Composition 2.3 Population composition: Demographic characteristics of a population such as age, gender, education, income, etc. Their elements include:

  • Age and gender
  • Education
  • Income and Occupation
  • Ethnicity and Race
  • Health and Mortality

Patterns of age structure and sex ratio

Ways in which population composition is depicted and analyzed:

  • Population pyramids
  • Demographic maps
  • Statistical Analysis

Population pyramids: It is a useful tool for analyzing population composition. They depict the age and gender distribution of a population in a graphical format. 

Population Dynamics 2.4 Demographic factors that determine a population’s growth and decline:

  • Fertility
  • Mortality
  • Migration

Social, cultural, political, and economic factors influence fertility, mortality and migration rates.

The Demographic Transition Model 2.5 Theories of population growth and decline: These are used to understand patterns and trends in population change over time. Two major theories include:

  • Demographic Transition Model: Describes the patterns of population change as a society progresses from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system
  • Epidemiological Transition: Describes the patterns of change in causes of death as a society develops. 
Malthusian Theory 2.6 Malthusian Theory: This theory is used to analyze population change and its consequences
Population Policies 2.7 Changes in population have long term and short term effects on a place’s economy, culture and politics.

Effect of population and immigration policies on population size and composition

Types of population policies:

  • Promotes or discourages population growth
    • Pronatalist
    • Antinatalist
    • Immigration Policies
Women and Demographic Change 2.8 The demographic consequences of changing role of females

Causes of reduced fertility rates:

  • Changing social values
  • Access to education
  • Health care
  • Employment
  • Contraception 

Changing social, economic and political female roles has influenced the patterns of fertility, mortality, migration, etc

Ravenstein’s laws of migration: Set of principles that provide insights into the patterns and trends of migration

Aging Populations 2.9 Causes and consequences of an aging population

Population aging is determined by birth and death rates and life expectancy.

An aging population has political, social and economic consequences.

Causes of Migration 2.10 Migration: Movement of people from one place to another, either within a country or across international borders. 

Causal factors that affect migration:

  • Economics
  • Political
  • Environmental 
  • Societal

Push factors: Factors that drive people away from their origin or home

  • War
  • Natural disasters
  • Poverty
  • Lack of job opportunities
  • Persecution

Pull factors: Factors that attract people to a new location

  • Job opportunities
  • Better living conditions
  • Safety
  • Family reunification
Forced and Voluntary Migration 2.11 Forced migration: Movement of people who are forced to leave their homes or countries due to factors beyond their control such as conflict or natural disasters.

  • Slavery
  • Events that produce refugees
  • Asylum seekers

Voluntary migration: Movement of people who choose to migrate for personal reasons.

Types of voluntary migration:

  • Transnational
  • Transhumance
  • Internal
  • Chain
  • Step
  • Guest worker
  • Rural-to-urban
Effects of Migration 2.12 Historical and contemporary geographic effects of migration

  • Cultural diffusion
  • Urbanization 
  • Labor markets
  • Demographic changes
  • Brain drain
  • Remittances

Unit 3: Cultural Patterns and Processes

Subtopic Subtopic Number AP Points to understand
Introduction to Culture 3.1 Characteristics, attitudes and traits that influence geographers when they study culture

Culture: Refers to the beliefs, behaviors and customs that define a particular group of people including their values, traditions, art, etc

Cultural Traits: They are specific elements that make up a culture. Some include

  • Clothing styles
  • Food preferences

Cultural relativism: Idea that a culture should be understood and evaluated within the context of its own values and norms.

Cultural ethnocentrism: Tendency to view one’s own culture as superior to others, and to judge other cultures based on one’s own cultural norms and values.

Cultural Landscapes 3.2 Cultural Landscapes: Visible, material aspects of human-made or altered environments that reflect the culture and beliefs of a particular society or community. Three types:

  • Historic
  • Vernacular
  • Associative

Characteristics of a cultural landscape:

  • Human modification
  • Cultural significance
  • Physical and environmental features
  • Historical importance
  • Continuity and change

Ways in which landscape features and land and resource use reflect cultural beliefs and identities.

Cultural Patterns 3.3 Patterns and landscapes of language, religion, ethnicity, and gender.

Regional patterns: Shaped by the interplay between centripetal and centrifugal forces. Centripetal and centrifugal forces help explain regional patterns and how different factors influence the movement and settlement of people in different areas.

  • Centripetal: Factors that unify and bring people together within a particular region
  • Centrifugal: Factors that push people apart and make it difficult for the regions to reunite
Types of Diffusion 3.4 Diffusion: Process by which an idea, innovation or cultural trait spreads from one place to another. 

Types of diffusion:

  • Expansion: Innovation spreads from a central point to surrounding areas
  • Relocation: Innovation is physically carried by people to a new location where it takes root and begins to spread
  • Stimulus: Innovation spreads from one culture to another but is adapted to fit the local cultural context.
Historical Causes of Diffusion 3.5 Impact of historical processes on current cultural patterns

Interactions between and among cultural traits

Colonialism: Practice of one country establishing political and economic control over another country or region.

Imperialism: Refers to the broader practice of one country exerting dominance or influence over another country or region, often through military or economic means. 

Trade: Refers to the exchange of goods and services between regions and cultures.

How these three helped in shaping patterns and practices of culture.

Contemporary Causes of Diffusion 3.6 Cultural ideas, practices and innovation that change or disappear over time. Some processes that impact current cultural patterns are:

  • Globalization
  • Migration
  • Social Media and Digital Technologies
  • Tourism
Diffusion of Religion and Language 3.7 Religions and ethnic religions

Factors that lead to the diffusion of universalizing and ethnic religions

  • Diffusion of language families
Effects of Diffusion 3.8 Change to the cultural landscape though the process of diffusion results. Effects of diffusion culture:

  • Acculturation: Process by which a culture adopts elements of another culture such as language, customs, and beliefs. 
  • Assimilation: Refers to the process by which a culture completely adopts the norms and values of another culture, often resulting in the loss of its own distinct cultural identity.
  • Syncretism: Process by which two or more cultures merge together to form a new, hybrid culture.
  • Multiculturalism: Coexistence of multiple cultures within a society.

Unit 4: Political Patterns and Processes

Subtopic Subtopic Number AP Points to understand
Introduction to Political Geography 4.1 Different types of political entities in a world political map:

  • Nation-state
  • Stateless State
  • Federal State
  • Confederation
  • Autonomous Region
  • Dependent Territory

Contemporary examples of political entities: US, UK, China, European Union, Greenland

Independent states – the primary building blocks of the world political map

Political Processes 4.2 Processes that have shaped the contemporary political geography

Sovereignty: Principle that a state or government has supreme authority over its own affairs and is free from external interference or control.

Nation-states: Sovereign states that are recognized as representing a single nation or cultural group.

Self-determination: Idea that people have the right to choose their own political status and freely determine their own cultural, social, and economic development.

Movements and ism’s that have influenced contemporary political boundaries include: Colonialism, imperialism, independence movements and devolution

Political Power and Territoriality 4.3 Political power: Ability of a group or individual to control the behavior of others, often through the use of force or coercion. Can take forms like:

  • Military power
  • Economics power
  • Cultural Power

Territoriality: Ways in which people and groups use space and territory to establish and maintain political control. It is the connection of people, their culture and their economics systems to the land. 

Defining Political Boundaries 4.4 Political Boundaries: Artificial lines that demarcate the territorial limits of a political entity, such as a state, nation or municipality.

Types of political boundaries:

  • Relic
  • Superimposed
  • Subsequent
  • Antecedent
  • Geometric
  • Consequent
The Function of Political Boundaries 4.5 International boundaries: Political boundaries that separate two or more sovereign states, nations, or territories. 

Internal Boundaries: Boundaries that divide a single country or state into smaller administrative regions or territories. 

Boundaries: The define the spatial distribution of political power and authority, as well as the rights and responsibilities of different groups within a society. 

Types of political boundaries:

  • Natural
  • Cultural
  • Geometric
  • Delimited
  • Demarcated

Land and Maritime boundaries: Land boundaries are defined by physical features on the land, such as rivers, mountain ranges or deserts. Maritim boundaries are defined by the distribution of water between two or more sovereign states of territories. 

Internal Boundaries 4.6 Function of internal boundaries: Divide a country or state into smaller administrative regions or territories. 

Things that affect election results:

  • Voting districts: Geographic areas that are used to determine political representation in a country or state
  • Redistricting: Process of redrawing voting district boundaries to ensure that each district has approximately equal representation. 
  • Gerrymandering: Form of redistricting in which voting district boundaries are intentionally drawn in a way that benefits the political party.
Forms of Governance 4.7 Governance: Refers to the system of rules, institutions, and practices by which a society or community is governed and managed. 

Forms include:

  • Federal states: Power is divided between a central government and a number of regional or local governments.
  • Unitary states: Power is concentrated in a single central government, which exercises authority over the entire territory of the state.

Ways in which these states affect spatial organization

Defining Devolutionary Factors 4.8 Factors that lead to the devolution of the states:

  • Division of groups by physical geography 
  • Ethnic separatism
  • Ethnic Cleansing
  • Terrorism
  • Economic and Social problems
  • Irredentism
Challenges to Sovereignty 4.9 Ways in which political, economic, cultural, and technological changes challenge state sovereignty. 

Devolution: Process by which power and responsibilities are transferred from a central government to regional or local governments within a country

Supranationalism: Refers to the process of creating regional or international institutions that have authority above that of individual non-states. 

Democratization: Process of expanding political participation and promoting democratic values within a society. 

Supranational organizations: They can challenge state sovereignty by limiting the economic or political actions of member states. Some organizations include:

  • UN
  • NATO
  • EU
  • ASEAN 
Consequences of Centrifugal and Centripetal forces 4.10 Centrifugal states can lead to:

  • Failed states
  • Uneven development
  • Stateless nations
  • Ethnic nationalist movements

Centripetal forces can lead to:

  • Ethnonationalism
  • Equitable infrastructure development
  • Increased cultural cohesion

Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology

Subtopic Subtopic Number AP Points to understand
Introduction to Agriculture 5.1 Connection between Physical geography and agricultural practices

What are agricultural practices influenced by:

  • Physical environment
  • Climatic conditions 

Intensive farming: Small areas of land are cultivated intensively using high inputs of labor, capital and/or technology to achieve high yields per unit of land.

  • Market gardening
  • Plantation agriculture
  • Mixed crop systems
  • Livestock systems

Extensive farming: Relies on a large area of land to produce relative low yields. Uses low level of inputs and relies on natural fertility and rainfall.

  • Shifting cultivation
  • Nomadic herding
  • Ranching 
Settlement Patterns and Survey Methods 5.2 Rural settlement patterns: Spatial distribution of people and communities in rural areas.

  • Clustered
  • Dispersed 
  • Linear

Methods of surveying rural settlements:

  • Metes and bounds
  • Township and range
  • Long hot
Agricultural Origins and Diffusions 5.3 Domestication:

Major centers of domestication: 

Patterns of diffusion:

The Second Agricultural Revolution 5.4 The second agricultural revolution:

Advances and impacts:

  • New technology
  • Increased food production
    • Better diets
    • Longer life expectancies
The Green Revolution 5.5 Green revolution:

Consequences of the green revolution: Has positive and negative consequences

Agricultural Production Regions 5.6 Influence of agricultural practices on economic forces:

Agricultural production: Defined by the extent to which they reflect subsistence or commercial practices.

Spatial Organization of Agriculture 5.7 Complex commodity chains:

Large scale commercial agricultural operations are replacing small family farms

Von Thunen Model 5.8 The Von Thunen Model: It is used to explain the patterns of agricultural production and various scales

  • Helps explain the importance of the transportation costs associated with distance from the market.
The Global Systems of Agriculture 5.9 Interdependence among regions of agricultural production and consumption.

Global food distribution networks:

Elements of global food distribution networks that are affected include:

  • Political relationships
  • Infrastructure
  • Patterns of world trade
Consequences of Agricultural Practices 5.10 Environmental and societal consequences of agricultural practices

Environmental consequences:

  • Pollution 
  • Land cover change
  • Desertification
  • Soil salinization
  • Conservation efforts

Societal effects:

  • Changing diets
  • Role of women in agricultural production
  • Economic purpose

Agricultural practices:

  • Slash and burn
  • Irrigation
  • Deforestation
  • Draining wetlands
  • Shifting cultivation
  • Pastoral nomadism
Challenges of Contemporary Architecture 5.11 Agricultural innovations:

  • Biotechnology
  • Genetically modified organisms
  • Aquaculture 

Patterns of food production and consumption are influenced by individual food choice, such as urban farming, organic farming, dietary shifts, etc.

Women in Agriculture 5.12 Geographic variation in female roles 

Role of females in food production, distribution and consumption varies depending on the type of production.

Unit 6: Cities and Urban Land-use Patterns and Processes

Subtopic Subtopic Number AP Points to understand
The origin and influences of urbanization 6.1 Urbanization: Process of population growth and development of urban areas.

Suburbanization: Process of population growth and development of suburbs.

Influences of urbanization:

  • Changes in transportation and communication
  • Population growth
  • Migration
  • Economic development
  • Government policies
Cities across the world 6.2 Megacities: Very large urban areas with populations exceeding 10 million people

Metacities: Even larger urban areas with populations exceeding 20 million people

Periphery: Areas that are located at the outskirts of urban centers

Semi Periphery: Areas located between urban centers and periphery areas

New challenges faced due to the processes of suburbanization

Cities and globalization 6.3 Urban hierarchy: Ranking of societies according to their size, economic importance and product cultural production

Cities are connected globally by networks and linkages and mediate global processes.

The size and distribution of cities 6.4 Interdependence: Interconnectedness of different regions, cities, and economic sectors within a globalized economy.

Relative size: Size of a city relative to other cities in a particular region or country. 

Urban spacing: Refers to the physical distance between cities and the way in which they are distributed across a particular region or country.

Principles used to explain distribution and size of cities:

  • Rank size rule: A statistical pattern that describes the relationship between the size of cities in a particular country or region.
  • Primate city: The model that explains the distribution of cities and towns based on their function as centers of economic activity and the goods and services they provide to surrounding areas.
  • Christaller’s central place theory: A model that explains the distribution of cities and towns based on their function as centers of economic activity and the goods and services they provide to surrounding areas.
The internal structure of cities 6.5 Models and theories used to explain internal structures:

  • Burgess concentric-zone model
  • Hoyt sector model
  • Harris and Ullman multiple-nuclei model
  • Galactic city model
  • Bid-rent theory
  • Urban models
Density and Land use 6.6 Density housing: Refers to the design and construction of buildings that can accommodate a large number of people within a smaller land area.

Residential buildings and patterns of land use reflect and shape the city’s culture, capabilities and development. 

Infrastructure 6.7 Infrastructure: Refers to the physical structures, facilities, and systems that are necessary for the operation of a society or economy.

Location and quality of a city’s infrastructure directly affects its spatial patterns of economic and social development.

Urban Sustainability 6.8 Urban design initiatives: They are efforts to improve the quality of life in urban areas through the thoughtful design of public spaces, buildings, and neighborhoods.

Urban Sustainability: Urban sustainability refers to efforts to create cities that are environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable over the long term.

Sustainable design initiatives include:

  • Mixed land use
  • Walkability 
  • Transportation-orientation development
  • Smart-growth policies

Effects of urban design initiatives and practices

Criticisms for design initiatives:

  • Increased housing costs
  • Potential loss of historical or place character
  • Possible de facto segregation
Urban Data 6.9 Using data to show cause and effect of geographic change within urban areas

Quantitative data: From Census and Survey

Quantitative data: Field studies and narratives

Challenges of Urban Changes 6.10 Causes and effects of geographic change within urban areas

Challenges that are faced by urban populations to move

  • Housing
  • Housing discrimination – Redlining, Blockbusting
  • Affordability 
  • Environmental injustice
  • Abandonment 

Squatter settlements: They are informal housing developments that are typically constructed on land that is not legally owned or designated for housing purposes. 

Responses to economic and social challenges:

  • Inclusionary zoning
  • Local food movements

Urban renewal: The ​​process of revitalizing and improving urban areas that have fallen into disrepair or become blighted.

Gentrification: Process of urban renewal in which affluent residents move into a previously low-income neighborhood, often resulting in the displacement of the original residents. 

Functional and geographic fragmentation of governments

Challenges of Urban Sustainability 6.11 Effectiveness of different attempts to address urban sustainability challenges

Challenges to urban sustainability: 

  • Suburban sprawl
  • Sanitation
  • Climate change
  • Air and water quality
  • Ecological footprint of the cities

Responses to urban sustainability:

  • Regional planning efforts
  • Remediation and redevelopment of brownfields
  • Farmland protection fields 

Unit 7: Industrial and economic development patterns and processes

Subtopic Subtopic Number AP Points to understand
The industrial revolution 7.1 Industrial revolution 

Industrialization: Began as a result of new technologies and was facilitated by the availability of natural resources

A factor that contributed largely to colonialism and imperialism: raw materials and new markets

Economic Sectors and patterns 7.2 Spatial patterns of industrial production and development.

Economic sectors that are characterized by development patterns:

  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Tertiary 
  • Quaternary 

Factors that influence the location of manufacturing (in core, semiperiphery and periphery locations):

  • Labor 
  • Transportation
  • Least cost theory
  • Markets
  • Resources
Measures of Development 7.3 Social and economic measures of development:

  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country in a given period, usually a year.
  • Gross National Product (GNP): Similar to GDP, but it includes the income earned by a country’s residents and businesses outside of its borders. 
  • Gross National Income (GNI): Measure of the income earned by a country’s residents and businesses, regardless of where it is earned. 
  • Fertility rates
  • Infant mortality rates
  • Income distribution

Measures of gender inequality:

  • Gender Inequality Index (GII): Measure of gender inequality that takes into account multiple dimensions, including reproductive health, empowerment, and economic activity. 
  • Reproductive health
  • Indices of empowerment
  • Labor-market participation

Human Development Index (HDI): Composite measure to show spatial variation among states in levels of development.

Woman and Economic Development 7.4 To what extent changes in economic development have contributed to gender parity.

Women in the workforce still do not have equity in wages or employment opportunities.

Roles of women change as the country develops economically.

Theories of Development 7.5 Economic Development: Refers to the process by which a country or region improves its economic and social well-being through various means, including industrialization, increased trade, and improved infrastructure.

Social Development: Refers to the process of improving the well-being of individuals and communities, and promoting social justice and equity.

Theories of economic and social development to explain the spatial variations:

  • Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth
  • Dependency Theory
  • Wallerstein’s World System
  • Commodity dependence
Trade and the World Economy 7.6 Trade: Refers to the exchange of goods and services between countries or regions. 

Complementarity advantage: Refers to the ability of two countries or regions to benefit from trade by specializing in the production of different goods or services that complement each other. 

Comparative advantage: Refers to the ability of a country or region to produce a particular good or service at a lower opportunity cost than another country or region. 

Neoliberal policies: They are economic policies that emphasize free market principles, such as deregulation, privatization, and reduced government intervention in the economy. 

  • Free trade agreements have created new organizations, trade relationships and spatial connections
    • Trade relationships (EU, WTO, OPEC)

Global financial crisis: Crisis that has the ability to lead to a global recession, with many countries experiencing high levels of unemployment, debt, and financial instability.

International lending agencies: International lending agencies, such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, provide loans and financial assistance to countries facing economic challenges. 

Strategies to demonstrate how different economies have become more closely connected

Changes as a Result of the World Economy 7.7 Things that have led to a decline in jobs in core regions and a rise in newly industrialized countries:

  • Outsourcing:
  • Economic reconstruction

Growth of industry has resulted in the creation of new manufacturing zones. Some examples include;

  • Special economic zones
  • Free-trade zones
  • Export processing zones

Post-Fordist methods of production: Refers to a shift in manufacturing methods away from the mass production techniques 

Multiplier effects: Refer to the economic benefits that result from an initial injection of spending into an economy.

Agglomeration: Refers to the concentration of economic activity in particular regions or cities. 

Sustainable Development 7.8 How sustainability impacts industrialization and spatial development

Purpose of sustainability policies is to attempt to remedy problems stemming from natural resource depletion, impact of climate change, mass consumption, etc. 

Ecotourism: Refers to a type of tourism that focuses on natural environments and wildlife conservation. However, they’re threatened by looming industrialization

UN’s Sustainable Development Goals: They are a set of 17 goals adopted by the United Nations in 2015 that aim to promote sustainable development globally. 

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