STUDY NOTES FOR BIOLOGY CHAPTER 10 – GENETICS AND EVOLUTION

Expert teachers have specially curated these notes to simplify and enlighten concepts given in IB Biology HL. The notes are comprehensive and are sufficient to study the chapter in-depth, and one need not look for other resources beyond the notes provided on our website, which can be accessed for free. The notes for Genetics and Evolution IBDP HL are available on our official website and can be downloaded for free. You are one click away from obtaining all that you need to score well in IB Biology HL.

The material made available on Tychr’s website is available for all IBDP subjects. It is specially curated after an extensive amount of effort to ensure that the notes are in consonance with the IB curriculum and are an amalgamation from various textbooks prescribed by the IBO. Students often face a challenge understanding concepts, especially concepts that are new and tricky. These IB Biology Notes will help the student cover the chapter on Genetics and Evolution entirely while explaining each concept in a detailed and easy way. 

Biology IBDP  is a part of group 4 Sciences of the IB Curriculum. The IBDP Biology course is the study of living organisms and their interaction with their surroundings. Students who opt for this course can better understand physiology, their environments, genetics etc. 

In Biology, the interaction of these approaches forms the basis of a holistic and integral approach to understanding biological processes and life as dynamic and complex phenomena; these enable students to understand the diversities and commonalities between living beings and environments.

The interaction of these approaches focuses on the CORE areas of Cell Biology, Molecular biology, Genetics, Ecology, Evolution and biodiversity, and human physiology.

In this chapter, we understand chromosomal behaviour, gene pools and speciation. We start the discussion with meiosis wherein we discuss crossing over and Law of independent assortment, i.e. how the separation of one pair of alleles is independent of another pair. Then we talk about the Law of Segregation, i.e. that during gametogenesis the pair of alleles separate in such a manner that offspring receives one allele from each parent. In his experiments, Mendel used pea plant. Linked genes, i.e. genes found on the same chromosome and usually pass onto the next generation together, are an exception to the law of segregation.

Variations are of two types: continuous (polygenic inheritance of skin colour) and discontinuous/discrete (ABO blood grouping). Chi-square tests are done to check the accuracy of possible ratios that are obtained by crossing by finding whether the difference between the observed and expected is quite significant or not. Gene pool can be defined as all the genetic information present in reproducing members of a population at a given time.

Hardy Weinberg equation p + q = 1 is used to calculate the alleles frequency. Variation in allelic frequency by natural factors leads to selection either directional or stabilising, or disruptive). Then we discuss Reproductive isolation caused by geographical, temporal or behavioural causes. The rate of speciation can be judged by gradualism or punctuated equilibrium (sudden) 

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