STUDY NOTES FOR BIOLOGY CHAPTER 11 – ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY

Expert teachers have specially curated these notes to simplify and enlighten concepts given in IB Biology HL. The notes are comprehensive and are sufficient to study the chapter in-depth, and one need not look for other resources beyond the notes provided on our website, which can be accessed for free. The notes for Animal Physiology IBDP HL are available on our official website and can be downloaded for free. You are one click away from obtaining all that you need to score well in IB Biology HL.

The material made available on Tychr’s website is available for all IBDP subjects. It is specially curated after an extensive amount of effort to ensure that the notes are in consonance with the IB curriculum and are an amalgamation from various textbooks prescribed by the IBO. Students often face a challenge understanding concepts, especially concepts that are new and tricky. These IB Biology Notes will help the student cover the chapter on Animal Physiology entirely while explaining each concept in a detailed and easy way.

Biology IBDP is a part of group 4 Sciences of the IB Curriculum. The IBDP Biology course is the study of living organisms and their interaction with their surroundings. Students who opt for this course can better understand physiology, their environments, genetics etc.

In Biology, the interaction of these approaches forms the basis of a holistic and integral approach to understanding biological processes and life as dynamic and complex phenomena; these enable students to understand the diversities and commonalities between living beings and environments.

The interaction of these approaches focuses on the CORE areas of Cell Biology, Molecular biology, Genetics, Ecology, Evolution and biodiversity, and human physiology.

In this unit, we will learn about the immune responses, movement of muscles in our body and homeostatic mechanisms. We start with Antibody and vaccination, wherein we learn how antigen-antibody interaction is essential to mount an immune response. Macrophages act as the principal antigen-presenting cells, and T lymphocytes recognise the antigen presentation. T lymphocytes stimulate B lymphocytes to produce specific antibodies.

Monoclonal Antibodies are specific antibodies for only one type of antigen, i.e. they are exactly the same and are used in pregnancy kits. We then move to vaccines that contain attenuated or killed pathogens to generate a primary response in the body. We also discuss movement, which utilises bones and muscles. Bones sometimes act as levers to facilitate movement. Muscles work antagonistically in pairs (flexor and extensor muscles).

Skeletal muscles are made up of muscle fibres that are multinucleated and have specialised ER. Muscle fibre is made up of myofibrils and is made up of sarcomeres. Each sarcomere consists of proteins actin and myosin. Muscles contract according to the sliding fibre hypothesis. Then we understand the role of the Kidney in osmoregulation and water homeostasis. Kidneys help in the removal of waste through urine by filtering blood.

Nephrons are the functional unit of the kidney where ultrafiltration, tubular reabsorption and secretion gives rice to urine. In, the end we discuss sexual reproduction, spermatogenesis( production of spermatozoa), oogenesis( production of ovum) and fertilisation. We also talk about implantation and the hormones of parturition.

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